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How to make bootable USB

Posted on October 07, 2019


A bootable USB flash drive allows booting a computer system from a single USB flash drive. The contents / ISO files can be copied to the device to boot ghe computer system.

A bootable USB for installing Avouch Linux can be created from Avouch Linux as well as Microsoft Windows. Both procedures are described below:-

Option 1 — Creating bootable USB from Windows

Step 1 — Get Avouch Linux

If yet not downloded the latest Avouch Linux distribution release iso file, then get it from download section of your choice which better meets your requirments.

Step 2 — Get Rufus

Rufus is a utility that helps format and create bootable USB flash drives. Get the latest availabe version from Rufus website.

Step 3 — Starting Rufus

Insert the USB Flash drive in USB port minimum required is 4GB). Start the Rufus (if you face any write permission error then run Rufus as Administrator).

Step 4 — Select ISO file

Select the ISO file you have already downloaded and provide location where you have stored it on your computer. Do not change the rest of the options. The default option are good to go with Avocuh Linux.

Step 5 — Start the process

Press start button, pop up will appear. Select the deafault recommended option (i.e. write in ISO image mode) and press ok.

The process will start, wait till the the status bar shows ready. The USB is now ready to test / install Avouch Linux. Restart your computer and select the boot from USB Flash drive from the BIOS / UEFI boot options.

Option 2 — Creating bootable USB from Avouch Linux (Manual)

Step 1 — Boot from Avouch Live DVD

Boot from Avouch Live DVD and enter into the live environment.

Step 2 — Start Terminal

Insert the USB into the USB port and start the terminal from the start menu.

Step 3 — Format USB Flash drive (optinal)

Format USB Flash drive by running the following command:

sudo mkfs.{file_system} -n {volume_name} {usb_flash_drive}

As an example the command look like:

sudo mkfs.vfat -n AVOUCHLIVE /dev/sdc1

Note: Volumen name is important, it must be AVOUCHLIVE (all capitals) if you intend not to change the grub.cfg configuration file. If you want to change the volume name then update the volume name in grub.cfg file accordingly

Step 4 — Mount USB Flash drive

Mount the USB Flash drive by running the following command:

sudo mount -t {file_system} {usb_flash_drive} {mount_point}

As an example the command look like:

sudo mount -t /dev/sdc1 /mnt

If drive is already mounted then use the following command to un-mount the drive:

sudo umount -l /dev/sdc1

Step 5 — Installing Grub Boot Loader

After the USB drive mounted successfully, run the following command to make a directory:

sudo mkdir -p $DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot/grubk

Run the following command to install Grub for system with UEFI environment

sudo grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=$EFI_MOUNTPOINT --boot-directory=$DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot --removable --recheck

As an example the command look like:

sudo grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/mnt --boot-directory=/mnt/boot --removable --recheck

Tip: If the directory "/sys/firmware/efi" then the system is booted in UEFI envoronment. Alternatly run the comman "efivar -l" if the output is empty then the system is booted in BIOS mode otherwise if output is not empty then the system is booted in UEFI mode.

Run the following command to install Grub for system with BIOS environment

sudo grub-install --target=i386-pc --boot-directory=$DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot --recheck $DISKk

As an example the command look like:

sudo grub-install --target=i386-pc --boot-directory=/mnt/boot --recheck /dev/sdc

Tip: In Avouch Linux and most of the Linux distributions the USB drives are automounted on the default mount point i.e. /run/media/{username}/{drive-label}, if the drive has no name then the mount point would lokk like "/run/media/{username}/{drive_uuid}". In this case the mountpoint would be ammended in above mentioned commands accordingly.

Step 5 — Installing Grub Boot Loader

After the USB drive mounted successfully, run the following command to make a directory:

sudo mkdir -p $DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot/grubk

Run the following command to install Grub for system with UEFI environment

sudo grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=$EFI_MOUNTPOINT --boot-directory=$DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot --removable --recheck

As an example the command look like:

sudo grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/mnt --boot-directory=/mnt/boot --removable --rechecc

Tip: If the directory "/sys/firmware/efi" then the system is booted in UEFI envoronment. Alternatly run the comman "efivar -l" if the output is empty then the system is booted in BIOS mode otherwise if output is not empty then the system is booted in UEFI mode.

Run the following command to install Grub for system with BIOS environment

sudo grub-install --target=i386-pc --boot-directory=$DATA_MOUNTPOINT/boot --recheck $DISKk

As an example the command look like:

sudo grub-install --target=i386-pc --boot-directory=/mnt/boot --recheck /dev/sdc

Tip: In Avouch Linux and most of the Linux distributions the USB drives are automounted on the default mount point i.e. /run/media/{username}/{drive-label}, if the drive has no name then the mount point would lokk like "/run/media/{username}/{drive_uuid}". In this case the mountpoint would be ammended in above mentioned commands accordingly.

Step 6 — Copying ISO file contents

Copy the ISO file contents to the drive extracting the contents directly to the USB drive or by mounting the ISO file and then copy the contents to the USB drive.

Step 7 — Reboot the system

The USB drive can now boot the Avouch Linux. Reboot the system and select USB Flash drive from the boot menu.

Tip: If QEMU is installed then the USB can be tested by running the following command.

qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -hda "/dev/sdc" -m 2048 -vga std c



Avouch 0.1.1 is available now. Read the release announcement for detail.

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